The official language of Iran is Persian (Farsi), the majority of the population (more than 60%) speaks Farsi, Kurdish and Azerbaijani are also popular, Arabic and Armenian are less popular.
Iran varies from dry climate with high air temperatures typical for the predominant territory of the country, to subtropical along the coast of the Caspian Sea and in the northern forest regions. There, the temperature rarely drops below 0°C in winter and rarely exceeds 29°C in summer. The average annual rainfall is 1700 mm in the west of the Caspian region and 680 mm in its east. In the west of Iran, in the Zagros mountains, in winter the temperature is almost always below 0 °, heavy snowfalls and strong winds are characteristic. In the central and eastern regions of the country, the climate is arid with an average annual rainfall of less than 200 mm and average summer temperatures above 38°C. On the plains along the shores of the Persian and Oman Gulfs, winters are generally mild, while summers are hot and humid.
HOLIDAYS AND WEEKENDS
Iran is a Muslim state. For this reason, the calendar of this country is largely based on the dates of Muslim holidays celebrated annually according to the lunar calendar, the dates of which are shifted within two weeks.
From Saturday to Thursday – working days, day off – Friday.
In Iran, holidays are celebrated according to three different calendars: Iranian solar – for events of republican significance, Islamic lunar – for religious holidays, ordinary Gregorian – for international dates
January-February – Islamic New Year
Early February – Suffering of Imam Jafar Sadeq
February-April – Ashura
February 11 – Victory Day of the Islamic Revolution of 1979
December-February – Birthday of Imam Reza
March 19 – Day of nationalization of oil fields
March 27 – Eid Gadir-Khom
End of March – beginning of April – Nouruz
April 1 – Islamic Republic Day
April 17 – Tashua
April-May – Arbain
June 4 is the anniversary of the death of Imam Khomeni
June 5 is the anniversary of the anti-Shah uprising
June 16 – Maulid (Birthday of the Prophet Muhammad)
July 4 – Day of the death of the prophet
August-October – Imam Ali’s birthday
September-November – Birthday of Imam Mahdi
September-December – The Suffering of Imam Ali
October – Laylat al-Meiraj
October-November – Eid al-Fitr
November – Suffering of Imam Jafar Sadeq.
Iran is a multinational state, there are many ethnic groups, but they are all called Iranians. Persians make up the majority of the country’s population. More than 70% of the country’s population belong to the Iranian group. Iranians are genetically different from other nations of the East, some scientists put forward the theory that Iranians are genetically close to Europeans. Persians make up about 50% of the population, Azerbaijanis and Turkic-speaking peoples close to them – 25%, Kurds – 7%, Arabs – 3%; Talysh, Gilyans, Mazandarans, Lurs and Bakhtiyars – 10%, Balochs and Turkmens – 2% each. In addition, there are national minorities (1%) of Armenians, Circassians, Assyrians and Georgians. And all these ethnic groups communicate freely, marry among themselves and consider themselves one nation. For example, the tradition of celebrating Nowruz came from the Aryans and was very popular among the Zoroastrians,
Within the country, you can travel by plane, train or bus. Local airlines connect cities such as Tehran, Tabriz, Rasht, Kerman, Shiraz, Bandar Abbas, Ahvaz, Zahedan, Kermanshah, Mashhad, Bushehr, Kish and Qeshm islands. There is a bus service between Iranian cities, and most of the buses are very comfortable. However, trains are the best way to travel long distances. Railway lines connect the cities of Tehran, Tabriz, Mashhad, Isfahan, Yazd, Shiraz, Kerman, Bandar Abbas, Arak, Abadan and Ahvaz. There are three classes of carriages in trains: comfortable first, seated second and third class, like electric trains.
Inside cities, it is better to use taxi services, as buses and fixed-route taxis are most often overcrowded. If you still decide to take the bus, then remember that the passage for women and men is separate: men sit in front, women sit in the back of the cabin. There are no meters in taxis, fares are fixed. Prices can be found at special taxi prepaid cash desks, which are available at railway stations, airports and on the central streets of cities. Taxi drivers often pick up several people at the same time. Do not use private services.
Tehran has a metro which is the most modern in Asia.
Car rental points exist in almost every city.
In order to rent a car, you must have an international driver’s license. If you have rented a car, then be prepared for the fact that local motorists often do not follow the rules of the road.
Iranian Embassy in Moscow:
Pokrovsky Boulevard, 7; tel. +7 (495) 917-00-39, 917-01-98, 917-01-99;
Embassy of Russia in Tehran:
rue Neauphle-le-Chateau, 39; tel. (21) 667-011-61, 667-011-63;
Consulate General of the Russian Federation in Isfahan:
11, Masjed Sofretchi Alley, Chaharbagh Pain Ave.; tel.: (311) 222-20-60
Consulate General of the Russian Federation in Rasht:
82, Pasdar st.; tel.: (131) 322-84-30
Police – 110,
rescue service in Tehran – 115,
fire report – 125.
The exact time can be found by dialing 119.