Bosnia and Herzegovina Course of the War

While the Muslim Bosniaks (1991 population: 43.2%) as the national minority, held on to the preservation of Bosnia and Herzegovina as a three-national (multiethnic) state, the Bosnian Serbs (until 1995) now orientated themselves towards the idea of ​​gathering all Serbs in one state; with a population share of 31.8% (1991) they made a claim to 65% of the national territory. In order to round off their settlement areas, the Bosnian-Serbian units occupied more than two thirds of the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina until October 1992 due to their military superiority (heavy weapons of the former Yugoslav federal army), whereby they were from the former Yugoslavian until their official withdrawal in June 1992 Federal Army were directly supported. Distributed under the catchphrase “ethnic cleansing” v. a. the Bosnian Serbs, but also the Bosnian Croats, the other nationalities from the territories they conquered. War and displacement triggered massive refugee movements (by 1995 over 2.2 million refugees, around 100,000 dead, 40,000 of them civilians [mostly Muslim Bosniaks]). The struggles for ethnic homogenization also went hand in hand with the establishment of prisoner and internment camps. The stationing of UN protection troops (UNPROFOR) in June 1992 to protect the civilian population and ensure their supplies, but also other international aid, including via the establishment of an airlift to the besieged and hard-fought Sarajevo, the suffering of the population could only be alleviated a little. Especially in the (especially from 1993) highly competitive strategically important cities, e. B. Bosanski Brod, and in the besieged Muslim-Bosniak enclaves in Serbian-populated regions such as Bihać, Goražde and Srebrenica, Tuzla and Žepa, the civilian population was severely affected by the consequences of the war; therefore, all these places and areas were declared UN protection zones on May 7, 1993. In February 1993, the UN Security Council also decided to set up an international war crimes tribunal in The Hague. therefore, all these places and areas were declared UN protection zones on May 7, 1993. In February 1993, the UN Security Council also decided to set up an international war crimes tribunal in The Hague. therefore, all these places and areas were declared UN protection zones on May 7, 1993. In February 1993, the UN Security Council also decided to set up an international war crimes tribunal in The Hague.

According to best-medical-schools, the state preservation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a main demand of the various EC / EU and UN mediators, was repeatedly called into question by political manifestations of the war. Against the resistance of the Bosniaks, unilateral proclamations of independent Serbian territories were made (including Bosnian Krajina, October 1991). The proclamation of a “Serbian Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina” (“Republika Srpska”; January 9, finally April 7, 1992, capital Banja Luka; determination of the borders on July 26, 1992; State Presidency under President) turned out to be particularly serious R. Karadžić; elected on December 18, 1992, official resignation May / July 1996).

Because this openly sought the connection to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, newly founded in February / April 1992 by Serbia and Montenegro. In addition, a Croatian state “Hrvatska Republika Herceg-Bosna” had been proclaimed (abbreviation HRHB; July 3, 1992, capital Mostar; State Presidency under President Mate Boban [* 1940, † 1997], from February 8, 1994 Kresimir Zubak [ * 1947]; dissolved on August 31, 1996). An “Autonomous Region of Western Bosnia” was proclaimed around Bihać (September 27, 1993, “President” Fikret Abdić [* 1939]; seat: Velika Kladuša; separate peace with Serbs and Croats on October 21/22, 1993). President Izetbegović agreed despite the practical dissolution of the state, v. a. its administrative and economic system and the reduction of the state power borne by the Bosniaks to a fifth of the original territory, the factual division of the country into three parts (key point of various peace plans since 1993/94; Geneva Yugoslavia Conference). Despite the temporary break in the alliance between Bosniaks and Croats as a result of the heavy fighting between them in 1993 in central Bosnia (around Travnik and Zenica) and in Herzegovina around Mostar, representatives from Bosnia and Herzegovina in Washington reached an understanding through American and Russian mediation, »Herceg -Bosna “and Croatia on the establishment of a Bosniak-Croatian Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, divided into 8 cantons (March 2, 1994). Zubak elected president (replaced by Ejup Ganić [* 1946] at the end of 1994).

End of war, Dayton Accords and reconstruction

The international organizations sought to end the war with a trade embargo against Yugoslavia and an arms embargo against the warring parties (through the EU and UNO), by sending UN peacekeeping troops (UNPROFOR) and using NATO fighter jets. On 25/26 4. In 1994 an International (Bosnia) Contact Group was formed; The USA, Russia, Great Britain, France and Germany became members. The new partition plan for Bosnia and Herzegovina (49% of the country for the Serbs, 51% for the Federation), which it adopted on July 5, initially failed due to the resistance of the Bosnian Serbs; they rejected him in a referendum on 27./28. 8. and continued their attacks on Sarajevo and other UN protected areas unabated. The Bosniak and Croatian troops tried to to reduce the Serb-controlled part of the country through targeted military actions on the confused front, which is around 1,200 km long (summer 1995); Until the reconquest in mid / late August 1994, the Bosniak government troops also fought against the Bosniak autonomists in the Bihać region, whose Serbian grip was broken in early August 1995 in an alliance with Croatian troops. The Serbian conquest of the UN protection zones Srebrenica(massacre of Bosniaks) and Žepa on July 11 and 25, 1995, respectively, required the international community to intervene.

The London conference of 16 UN members (July 21, 1995) made a tough military intervention by NATO and UN possible, which after another massacre in Sarajevo (August 28, 1995) with air raids on Serbian positions in the Sarajevo area, Tuzla and Pale on 30./31. 8. 1995 ushered in the turning point in the conflict. This was followed by an agreement in principle on ethnic division and constitutional issues (Geneva Yugoslavia Conference, September 8). The demarcation of the border was laid down in the ceasefire agreement of October 10th (in force from October 12th, actually from October 22nd) – in accordance with the area shifts in the summer of 1995, which were again associated with mass displacement. After that, through the mediation of the USA, »rapprochement negotiations« took place between Croatia, Yugoslavia-Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (November 1–21, 1995). Dayton from 12./21. 11th 1995 the formal peace of Paris before (14th December 1995; Bosnia Agreement). Basis of the ethnic division, excluding the Brčko corridor, as well as the factual division of the country – as a political union – into the Serbian Republic (RS) and the Bosniak-Croatian Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) as the two territorial units (entities; renewed In accordance with the new military facts, the contact group plan of 1994 was changed at the end of March 1996. In replacement of UN-PROFOR, an international peacekeeping force under NATO command (IFOR, from December 1996 SFOR) was stationed with an OSCE mandate. At the beginning of December 1999, the reduction of SFOR troops began.

Bosnia and Herzegovina Course of the War